Generally speaking, we know that acid is every substance that produces an H + cation in water and that base is every substance that produces an OH- anion in water.
This theory has long been used to explain the concept of acid and base. And the Arrhenius Theory.
But, as time went on, new theories related to acid and base arose. It's the calls modern acid-base theories. Are they:
- Bronsted-Lowry Theory
- Lewis Theory
First, let's look at Arrhenius's Theory.
For this scientist, acids and bases are electrolytes, which in contact with water release ions. When an acid releases ions in aqueous solution, a ionization. Example:
HCl + H2O → H + + Cl-
It actually releases the hydronium ion (H3O +), like this:
HCl + H2O → H3O ++ Cl-
When a base releases ions in aqueous solution, a dissociation. Example:
NaOH + H2O → Na + + OH-
Arrhenius Acid - is every substance that produces an H + cation in water.
Arrhenius Base - is any substance that in water produces an OH- anion.
Next, we will study the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis theories.